In his book, The Audacity of Hope, President Barak Obama addresses issues that catapulted him to fame and brought the hope that he would be a prominent presidential election candidate. The book is originally his speech in Illinois state elections for senate chamber which has been delivered in 2004 in only 20 minutes. Later in 2006 he published that speech under the title “Audacity of Hope” that has the same themes he touched upon in the campaign speech in 2004.
The first chapter of the book is dedicated to two American parties, Democrats and Republicans. In this chapter, Obama contents that the congress is now more partisan than other times and that these two parties should overlook the differences and show collegiality and fellow feeling. He is not a supporter of mere partisan stance by the democrats against Republicans, nor does he agree with the old and worn out partisan poses or the Republicans. He hopes that Democrats show a sense of cooperation, while adhering to the central trends of the party.
He then in chapter two has recourse to politician behavior in the American political and social scene, asserting that in the age of information, not any of the politicians can remain exempt from the public scrutiny in the case of blunder. He calls for more adherences to political values in the face of conflict for sheer power. He also objects that the Democrat loss of offices comes from the internal factions and also from a more divisiveness with the Republicans. He admits that political scene dose not permit politician to remain true to their values. He finally hopes that the leaders of the two parties converge in the direction that its outcome be the nation’s profit.
Then in chapter 3 Obama gives an account of legislation debate in which the law makers are actually reluctant to amendments necessary to make the law up-to-date according to the needs and requirements of the day. Personally, Obama is in the front who support the idea that, though the constitution is the historical phenomenon, we can have special cased that according to which this constitutions shows flexibility of interpretation. He generally supports this flexibility, when facing the needs of an ever-growing world.
Obama in chapter 4 goes back to previous discussion of politics and politicians, saying that special interest groups have an influence on them, who seek out their special interest during any political event. Obama declares that in order to tackle the problem of being at service of special interest groups and increase the efficacy of any political system, politicians should be true to the morality and values of the party. He, then, calls for democrats’ appeasing the power-seeking parties and attitudes, so that they are able to serve their constituency better.
Obama, in chapter 5, this time targets economy and US economy in particular and considers its impact in social, cultural and political domains. According to him economic inefficiency is to the loss of the poor and marginalized people, but his own meetings with the prominent and wealthy people attests that his view is ironically also true.
He then, touches upon school reform, which has been implemented through empirical research. Religion and religious faith is Obama’s next resort in his book, by which he contends republican show- off of the religious faith. He gives an account of his journey from atheism to faith and that religious faith has strengthened his personal and moral convictions. Obama objects that since Americans are deeply religious, the only by which democrats can win this people’s consent is remaining in a sense of ease to religious faith. He concludes that religious tolerance is the best way to, for the two parties to have common grounds for ideas, not a hotspot in which they lead full-fledged war.
Race is dominant theme in chapter 7. In this Obama admits that, although the institutionalized form of racial discrimination has been ended, but with a look at American social scene, one can notice subtle form of discrimination is still present, however this prejudice dose not stem from fundamentally race-based attitudes, but from sheer ignorance of its perpetrators. Obama wants all Americans to disagree with any cases of discrimination in order to uproot this filthy phenomenon from Black experience of life.
Chapter 8 of the book is a scene in which Obama arranges American role in international politics and relations. He asserts that US defense budget is not in accord with the new patterns and needs of international relations and that American must attempt to assume more responsibility in facing the new paradigms emerging after 9 September 2001. In Iraq war issue, he believes that unilateralism was misguided and it has been poorly handled by Republican administration. He admits more multilateral efforts in solving world problems and that the Americans needlessly have been complacent about their role and function regarding the world affairs.
The last chapter is family in which Obama gives his own childhood accounts. Obama here contends that Republican’s stance over the family in posing personal dogmas in the frame of the law is not true to the private aspects of personal life. He finally asserts that in order to provide a center for children to thrive in, the families should have an unshakeable foundation and for that, supportive policies and personal responsibility must be dominant among the collective attitudes toward family.
Source by Mohammad Heidari